# Depreciation

Depreciation is the reduction in value of a tangible fixed asset due to normal usage, wear and tear, new technology or unfavourable market conditions. Unlike amortization which does not have any subtypes, there are different types of depreciation methods.

Assets such as plants and machinery, buildings, vehicles, etc. which are expected to last more than one year, but not for infinity, are subject to this reduction. It is an allocation of the cost of a fixed asset in each accounting period during its expected time of use.

Journal entry for depreciation (Assuming no provision is maintained)

 Depreciation A/C Debit To Asset A/C Credit

## Methods and Types of Depreciation Related Topic – Difference between Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization

## Straight Line Method

First, among types of depreciation methods is the straight-line method, also known as the Original cost method, Fixed instalment method, and Fixed percentage method.

Simplest, most used and popular method of charging depreciation is the straight-line method. An equal amount is allocated in each accounting period.

The rate of depreciation is the reciprocal of the estimated useful life of an asset, so, for example, the useful life of an asset is 5 years, the depreciation charged will be 1/5 = 20%.

According to the Straight Line Method,

Depreciation Amt = (Cost of asset − Salvage Value) / Useful life of the asset in years

### Example – Straight Line Method

Asset cost = 1,000,000

Depreciation Rate = 20%

1st year = 20/100*1,000,000

=>2,00,000

2nd year = 20/100*1,00,000

=>2,00,000

Advantages of  Straight Line Method are;

1. Simple and easy to understand.
2. The book value of an asset can be reduced to Zero.
3. A fair evaluation of an asset each year on the balance sheet.

Related Topic – What is Accumulated Depreciation?

## Diminishing Value Method

Second, among types of depreciation methods is diminishing value method and is also known as Written down value method, Reducing instalment method and Fixed percentage on diminishing balance.

According to the diminishing value method, depreciation is charged on reducing balance & a fixed rate. Depreciation, in this case, is charged over the useful life of an asset over its written down value.

The percentage, at which depreciation is charged, remains fixed, however, the amount of depreciation goes on diminishing year after year.

According to the Diminishing Value Method, D = Depreciation %

n = Useful life of the asset in years

r = residual value of the asset

c = Cost of asset

### Example – Diminishing Value Method

Asset cost = 1,000,000

Depreciation rate = 20% (DVM)

1st year = 20/100*1,000,000

=>2,00,000

2nd year = 20/100*(1,000,000-2,00,000)

=>1,60,000

Advantages of Diminishing Value Method are;

1. More practical and easy to apply.
2. Decreasing charge for depreciation cancels out increasing charges for repairs.
3. This method is applicable for income tax purposes.

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