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What is SIDBI?

SIDBI – Small Industries Development Bank of India

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) is a financial institution which is headquartered in Lucknow, India. It was established in 1990 on April the 2nd and is mainly responsible for promotion and development of micro, small and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs). These small enterprises contribute about 45% to manufacturing output and about 40% to total exports, directly and indirectly. SIDBI started as a wholly owned subsidiary of Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) & is currently owned by 33 different institutions which are either controlled or owned by government of India. Its official website is www.sidbi.in

Since its inception SIDBI has grown from being just a refinancing agency which assisted banks and other local NBFCs indirectly to a lender which now provides loans and other forms of credit directly to MSMEs. It plays a vital role by helping these budding businesses to expand their operations.

 

SIDBI has created several different legal entities to actively perform associated activities:

  • CGTMSE – Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (www.cgtmse.in)
  • SIDBI Venture Capital Limited (www.sidbiventure.co.in)
  • SMERA – SME Rating Agency of India Ltd. (www.smera.in)
  • ISARC – India SME Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd. (www.isarc.in)
  • MUDRA – Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency Ltd. (www.mudra.org.in)

 

SIDBI

 

Products and Services of SIDBI

Few of the products and services that Small Industries Development Bank of India offers are:

  • Service Sector Assistance – The micro small and medium-scale enterprises which require Loan/Capital for growth can consider SIDBI, this includes service sector enterprises such as IT houses, health care, logistics, retail outlets, clinics etc. It also offers loan facilitation and syndication services to the service sector.
  • Supporting Clean Energy – It has different programs to extend credit to support waste management, cleaner production and similar firms who are helping the planet to reduce the carbon footprint. 
  • Receivable Finance Scheme – It is a scheme devised to mitigate the receivables issue that occurs from the suppliers who are supplying goods to MSMEs and it helps to improve liquidity.
  • Flexible assistance for Capital Expenditure -It provides assistance in scheduling the tenure of your repayment schedule if the investor is investing in fixed assets for example land or building.
  • Government Subsidy schemes – It assists in variety of schemes which are offered by the government to help MSMEs in adoption of modern technological processes & expansion of operations.

 

Top Benefits of SIDBI

  • Uniquely Designed Products to meet MSMEs needs.
  • Focused attention on Industrial and Service sector.
  • Attractive rates on financial products.
  • Focused managers to assist in entrepreneurial development.
  • Its wide presence across the country.
  • Provision of risk/growth capital.
  • Access to equity and venture financing.
  • Access to collateral free finance.
  • Focused attention on Industrial & Service Sector Funding.

 



 

What are Personal Loans?

Personal Loans

You need money for almost everything. To tackle emergencies, to fulfil wishes, to get a higher education, to buy any amenity for your home or to get the best treatment for a health condition, money is all you want. And in these situations, Personal Loan comes to our rescue.

 

Personal Loans

 

Definition

A personal loan is “money borrowed” from an institution or a person to fulfil the personal requirements of a person for instance, for education, vacation, medical requirements, vehicle repair, etc. They are smaller loans and are of two types:

  • Secured Personal Loan
  • Unsecured Personal Loan

A secured personal loan is protected by collateral or an asset, for instance, a car or a house. Whereas, the unsecured personal loan does not require any kind of protection by any asset or collateral.

If you hold a good credit record, you can apply for a personal loan at any official lender, bank or building agency. As the personal loan is a smaller loan, the amount is also small. It may range from $500 to $10,000, i.e., any small amount based on your requirement, but if you want to borrow a large sum of money, you would have to apply for a secured personal loan.

 

Personal Loan Application

The procedure of applying for a personal loan is very easy. You need to apply for a loan at a bank or a lending agency. Nowadays, you can also apply online for a personal loan. You first need to fill an application then you may choose to talk to a representative who will explain you in detail, the loan options available for you. You will also be required to provide some personal information to the bank and your financial history and its current status. You also need to provide the proof of employment, the amount you need to borrow and the reason behind application of personal loan. Another important thing that you need to tell the bank is whether you have a co-signer or not.

Once you manage to get the personal loan, you can pay it back by paying an equal amount every month. The rate of interest and the loan fee may differ with different banks and lending agencies.

Advantages 

  • It is the easiest type of loan available at your disposal.
  • You can directly apply for a loan in a bank without any need of an agent.
  • The processing time is very less.
  • This is the least troublesome loan. The paperwork is a minimum.

Disadvantages

  • You cannot apply for a personal loan unless you have a bank account.
  • You must qualify the criteria set by the bank to get the loan.
  • Good credit history is a must.

 

Example of some personal loan providers in the world are:

  • Citibank
  • Santander
  • HDFC Bank
  • Money Lender Singapore – Passcredit.com

 



 

What are Moneylender Loans?

Moneylender Loans

Moneylender loans illustration

 Moneylenders provide small personal loans for a short time period at high rates of interest. In other words, risks and repayments are high. There are many different types of moneylenders. Some give a small number of loans that are to be repaid over a number of days. Some offer a heavy sum of money with a high-interest rate. Others may offer credits on furniture or electrical goods.

Moneylenders don’t count for your good or bad credit history. They even lend money to the gamblers who often get into a debt circle. However many countries are governed by the Money Lenders Acts of particular states.

 

Repayment and Interest Rates

Moneylenders will collect money from you in cash by reaching your doorstep and you will have to bear their collection charge. If you cannot pay the collection charge, you need to repay (principal+interest) at the moneylender’s office. The moneylender should carry his identity card so that he has permission to call you for repayment, any day between Monday to Saturday from 10 am to 9 pm. If you are comfortable, they can also call you from 8 am to 10 pm, but you must give it in writing beforehand. Also, they don’t have the permission to contact you on Sundays or any of the bank holidays or Contact your family members without your agreement.

Moneylenders are more expensive when compared to a bank or credit institution. The APR is a minimum of 23% and higher in other cases. The total credit cost tells the extra amount or the interest to be paid on the amount you borrowed. Moneylenders cannot charge extra interest, except for the collection charge. So make sure that if you miss paying the repayment, the total amount to be paid should not go up.

 

Consequences of Non-Payment

If you miss repaying the loan amount, contact your moneylender as soon as possible. If you fall short of payments, the moneylender cannot charge any kind of penalty and cannot give you another loan to pay the first loan. If the matter is still not resolved between you and the moneylender, you can contact the Money Advice and Budgeting Service (MABS). They give free and independent advice to people in debt. They will give you various suggestions such as drawing of budget, finding your entitlements, try to work out new loan arrangements with your moneylender. It will help to fulfil your commitments.

 

Some examples of moneylenders are,

  • creditwaves.com
  • hardmoneyusa.com

 



 

What are Foreigner Loans?

Foreigner Loans

A foreigner loan is a type of loan which can easily be accessed by someone who is not the citizen of the country from which he/she is acquiring the loan. Let us say if you need money to set up your business, buy some goods etc. however, you don’t have enough cash then there are some institutions which are specialized to give you financial help. You can avail that by applying for a foreigner loan to meet your needs. You just need to meet certain requirements to get your money.

 

Foreigner Loans

 

Foreigner Loans Vs Other Loans

The key difference between a foreign loan and another type of loan is the interest rate and the duration of repayment it offers. The banks and other credit institutions generally offer short-term loans. But foreign loans can attract higher interest rates, as the foreigners don’t have to go for collateral securities. So this means that foreigner loan is a high-risk loan. The duration of this loan is shorter when compared with standard loans. The less you borrow, the shorter the duration of repayment. Before going for this loan, a proper detailed study must be done taking various lending institutes into account.

 

Documents Needed to Obtain a Foreigner Loan

To obtain the loan from a moneylender, you are required to submit the following documents:

1. Work permit
2. Personal Information
3. Identification Documents
4. Payslips

*Specific requirements vary among different lenders.

 

Miscellaneous Points & Examples

Some moneylenders will try to exploit a high-interest rates from you if they know how badly you need a loan or if you don’t have sufficient knowledge. So explore and know more and more moneylenders and find out a suitable deal.

If you don’t want to obtain a loan from any of these sources, you can go for private lenders. All they need is your credit history and creditworthiness. They have less strict policies.

So before you apply for any loan, make sure that you take a glimpse of your income. Also make sure to study different sources of obtaining loans and keeping in mind your creditworthiness and future prospects, choose the most effective and efficient option.

 

An example of a foreigner loan provider is Power credit money lender Singapore.

 



 

What is a LLP in India?

Limited Liability Partnership – India

In India, a business organization can take many forms such as an LLP (Limited Liability Partnership), Private Limited Company, Public Company etc. On 7th January 2009 with the assent of the President the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 came into effect. LLP has been a successful business vehicle since then as it combines the benefits of a partnership with that of a limited liability company, making it a lucrative option for start-ups. It keeps the personal wealth of partners safe and on the other hand, it helps leverage the benefits of a partnership.

In a Limited Liability Partnership, a partner is not bound by another partner’s acts; it can be due to negligence, misconduct etc. In other words, LLP can also be defined as a corporate entity that combines professional as well as entrepreneur behaviour to operate in an effective, efficient and flexible manner by providing the benefit of limited liability and larger financial resources.

 

LLP in India

 

 

Requirements and Benefits of an LLP

  • The formation of an LLP requires a minimum of 2 partners and at least one of them shall be an Indian resident. Each partner will only be liable to the extent of its capital in the business unless found to have acted with fraudulent intentions and deceiving purposes to cheat creditors.
  • It is a separate legal entity formed under the LLP Act 2008 therefore It shall now possess the power to sue and be sued. Also, both an individual and a body corporate may become a partner.
  • Duties, rights & shares of each partner are governed by an agreement among partners or between the LLP and partners subject to the act. Law gives the freedom to formulate the agreement per choice.
  • There is no minimum capital required to form an LLP, moreover, the creation of a limited liability partnership is inexpensive as compared to other forms of business.
  • When paralleled with regular partnership an LLP is a preferred choice of lenders hence making borrowing easier. Also, it has less stringent compliance and regulatory requirements making it easier for the business owners to focus on operations.

 

Disadvantages of an LLP in India

  • A Limited Liability Partnership is not allowed to go public this means that it can not be listed on the stock exchange and is not allowed to raise money from the general public.
  • Actions of any partner related to the LLP will have an impact on it and the entity will be legally held responsible for any liabilities thus created.
  • Winding up an LLP can be a tedious and expensive task.

 

You may Download/View a PDF of the complete LLP Act – 2008 here LLP_Act_2008_India

To get details on the steps to register an LLP go to the official MCA India Website.

 



 

What is REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust)?

1

REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust)

REIT stands for Real Estate Investment Trust, it can be seen as a mutual fund that instead of investing in stocks invests in real estate. It is an organisation that deals in securities which may be sold like shares on major exchanges. REIT invests in real estate either directly or through mortgages by making a combined pool of money from investors which can range from small retail type to large accredited ones.

REIT own income-producing real estate which are in form of offices, apartment buildings, warehouses, hospitals, hotels, shopping malls etc. It benefits investors in several ways such as helping them attain regular income streams, long-term capital appreciation, diversify their investment portfolio, invest in real estate with relatively small capital etc. REIT’s prove to be strong income vehicles because they pay out almost 90% of their taxable income to the shareholders in form of dividends and shareholders pay taxes on those dividend. As Real Estate Investment Trust receive special considerations regarding tax, so high yields and liquid methods are offered to investors.

 

REIT - Real Estate Investment Trust

 

Types of Real Estate Investment Trusts

1. Equity REIT – In this type, investment is made in owning properties or a part of it thus generating their core income either by property rents or  by selling their long-term properties. Equity REITs are tilted towards specializing in owning certain building types such as apartments, shopping malls, corporate offices, hotels etc. Few concentrate on owning & generating revenues from a single type of building while others diversify.

2. Mortgage REIT – In this type, revenue is generated from investing not directly in the property instead investing it in mortgage related to a real estate. Money is either lent directly to the owners of real estate in form of a mortgage or existing mortgage is acquired or a mortgage-backed security is purchased. This may be done for both residential & commercial properties. Prime source of money is earned in form of interest generated on mortgages.

3. Hybrid REIT – It is a combined outcome of equity REIT’s and mortgaged REIT’s. This investment is done carefully in both properties and mortgages thus getting benefits of both the dimensions.

 

REIT – Common Qualifications

Different countries have different internal criteria(s) to qualify a company as a Real Estate Investment Trust, below mentioned are few common points across various nations:

1. Invest about 75% of assets in the field of real estate.

2. About 75% of gross income should be generated from real property or interests from mortgages.

3. Pay approx 90% of its taxable income to shareholders as dividends every year.

4. Should be controlled and managed by Board of Directors or Trustees.

5. At least have 100 shareholders.

 

Benefits of a REIT

1. High Yields – For most people, main attraction of this scheme is the income earned which usually outperforms the broader market making this a lucrative option. 

2. Easy Tax Procedure – Tax issues with REIT’s are more straight forward when compared to other schemes or partnerships. A form 1099-DIV is sent to shareholders which contain the breakdown of dividends. Each year dividends are allocated from capital gains and ordinary incomes. So it becomes easy to invest here.

3. Liquid Asset – Since REITs can be listed as stocks on major exchanges hence they are easy to buy and sell. This makes them liquid & hassle free.

4. Diversification – Research has shown adding REIT’s to any investment increases returns and diminishes risk as they have very little correlation with the stock exchange(s).

5. Leverage – Usually a small investor with less to moderate initial capital can not buy real estate easily, they may never be able to get the benefits of investing in high potential commercial real estate such as shopping malls, office spaces etc. Such investors can leverage their investment and get the benefits they otherwise may never be able to get.

 



 

5 Reasons to Invest in Blue Chip Stocks

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Reasons to Invest in Blue Chip Stocks

Blue Chip is a stock recognized for features such as stable earnings, high quality, less volatility and good returns. Thanks to Oliver Gingold of Dow Jones, In the early 1920s he termed such stocks as “blue chips” as he related them with the highest denomination in poker which was $25 back then for a blue coloured chip.

Such recognition helps a naive investor differentiate between “almost garbage” & a well-established firm. A regular investor with limited financial literacy can be awestruck by the number of options to invest while looking at all the listed stocks on an exchange. Let’s look at why blue-chip stocks are famous among investors.

 

1. Stable Earnings

If a business has stable earnings over a consistent period of time then it becomes reliable & earns the trust of investors which is considered a real good sign of a company which has its fundamentals right. If a stock has stable earnings it clearly means that the top management of the company is doing “something right” which has led them to stability. Stable earnings mean good returns for your portfolio & that remains the primary goal for all investments.

 

2. Dividend Payments

A solid trend which shows that the company pays dividends to its shareholders in a timely and consistent basis is a great morale booster for a stock owner simply because it acts as a cherry on the cake. It is income over and above your capital appreciation so, for example, a 20% dividend would mean an extra 20% income over and above your investment appreciation in a particular blue-chip company.

 

3. Strong Financials

Blue-chip companies have strong financials, for example, they are not hugely burdened by debt, their financial ratios are intact and are seen within prescribed limits, they have an efficient operating cycle etc. This leads to less volatility, minimal risk & very limited downside risk for the investor which ultimately helps them to mitigate risk keeping the entire investment profile in view.

 

4. Diversification

You might be someone who likes to take the risk; however, since blue-chip stocks are less risky they provide a great feature to help you reduce the entire risk profile so that even if you invest in more risky stocks which have a greater chance to fail blue chips can help you cover up some of your losses. These businesses usually have diversified business lines, demographics and multiple revenue channels which in turn help them reduce risk from operational failures.

 

5. Competitive Brand Advantage

Most of the blue-chip companies have a stronghold and their presence can be felt in daily lives of common people, for example, if you buy a can of sprite then you are adding up to the revenues of coca-cola if you buy ahead & shoulders shampoo you are adding up to the revenues of P&G. There are many such examples where it can be seen that blue chips get a competitive advantage due to their cost efficiency, franchise value, goodwill or distribution control.

 

Famous Blue Chip Companies 

These are the top 5 among various reasons to invest in blue-chip stocks.



 

What is Commercial Real Estate or CRE?

5

Commercial Real Estate

CRE (Commercial Real Estate) is also called Commercial property, investment property or income property. It is mainly related to all real estate which is used for business purposes to generate income. Examples of such real estate include shopping malls, restaurants, business offices, hotels etc.

Commercial real estate includes any type of property or vacant piece of land which fetches or has the potential to fetch income. From a business point of view, commercial real estate is any kind of commercial space that can be leased (or at times bought) for the use of operating a business. A commercial real estate (CRE) is usually leased and the owner collects a monthly or yearly payment in lieu of its usage by the tenants. 

 

CRE - Commercial Real Estate - Infographic

 

It can be categorized into a different type of property such as if it is a mall then the property falls under retail type, here is a quick look on the top categories:

  • Retail
  • Leisure
  • Offices
  • Industrial
  • Healthcare
  • *Residential

Few of the top known real estate landlords of the world are CBRE Group, Knight Frank, GE capital real estate, AMB Property, Prologis, Simon Property Group, Agile Property, General Growth Properties, ING Clarion, LaSalle Investment Management, RREEF, DLF, EMAAR etc.

 



 

What is FDI?

FDI (Foreign Direct Investment)

FDI stands for Foreign Direct Investment. When a company from a particular country invests in another company based in a different country in a way that it acquires some (generally 10% as per OECD) controlling stake is known as Foreign Direct Investment.

Like in the example info graphic shown below, Company A from India invests in Company B based in USA such an investment is termed as FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). The investment can happen in form of buying tangible assets, controlling stakes in ownership etc. FDI is not only a transfer of ownership as believed but it is also transfer of elements complementary to capital including technology, management and skills. FDI helps developing nations by filling in investment gaps which the domestic investors & the government can not fulfill on its own.

 

Infographic explaining FDI

 

 

FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) is different from FPI (Foreign Portfolio Investment) which means holding of shares and other financial assets by foreign investors without any controlling, management or ownership rights over the company, FPI is a indirect investment whereas FDI is direct.

There are 2 primary ways to invest in FDI:

  • Cross border M&A (Mergers & Acquisitions) which means buying controlling stake in a foreign company (Brownfield Investment)
  • Extending company’s operations to foreign and begin building new factories & offices from scratch (Greenfield investment)

 

Importance & Types of Foreign Direct Investment

1. Increased FDI implies rise in economic development because of increased capital and increased tax returns for the host country.

2. New projects are channelized to hike development by FDI investment in host countries.

3. Tough competition leads to highest efficiency and productivity levels in host country.

4. FDI results in specialization of skills and creation of new jobs.

5. FDI also generates employment opportunities created by different entities, for local countries.

 

Top reasons to invest in foreign companies are:

  1. Tap new markets
  2. Skilled labor
  3. Cut down costs
  4. Other strategic profit making decisions

 

Type 1 – Horizontal FDI

If a company lets say a e-commerce company expands its business in another country however still does the same thing both at home and abroad it is knows as Horizontal FDI. So in this case the e-commerce company enters a new geographical territory but the operations remain exactly the same.

 

Type 2 -Vertical FDI

When a company lets say an e-commerce company either moves upwards or downwards related to its operational cycle adding value to its business cycle it is called vertical FDI. A good example of this will be the same e-commerce company (who already has established business in a foreign country) acquiring a controlling stake in a logistics company.

 



 

5 Tax Benefits for Small Business Owners in USA

Tax Benefits for Small Business Owners

You can be an entrepreneur who is running a start-up, a home-based business or a small firm that is trying to make a mark. While playing the lead in this role of your life you are wholly responsible for your actions i.e. generating income, profits, paperwork, legal requirements, taxes etc. No matter what you do you can’t fully escape from paying taxes but you can definitely work towards reducing your tax bills. Don’t confuse Tax evasion with Tax avoidance, where the former is totally not suggestible the latter helps you to pay the least amount of tax legally. Just be very sure with your facts and ensure to never mess with the IRS.

Tax Benefits for Small Business Owners

Home Office Deduction

The cost of the workplace where you conduct your business either if you rent or acquire it, can be deducted as a home office expense. Your declarations are considered as final and considered true while filing taxes so it is always a good suggestion to be honest and always have supporting facts in case if you are examined. It is considered as a complex deduction, hence IRS gives 2 different ways to get this done, Standard Method and Simplified Method.

The tax deduction includes expenses such as interest on mortgage, insurance, utilities, repairs, depreciation and maintenance charges which are paid during the year. For example, if your workspace is 30% of your home, then 30% of your power bill for the year is tax-deductible. The standard method needs you to calculate your actual home office expenses whereas the simplified option lets you multiply an IRS-determined rate by your home office square footage.

 

Travel Expenses

An expense qualifies to be categorized under this head if it requires you to be away from the vicinity of your tax home, usually for longer than 1 workday & requires you to eat, rest and sleep to meet the demands of your work while travelling. Also, this type of travelling has to be business-related where you are expected to be involved in only business-related activities such as attempts to gather new customers, gain new skills, important conferences etc.

Travel expenses that can be covered are transportation, meals, telephone, baggage and shipping, cleaning, tips etc. You must keep complete and accurate records of your business dealings as it may be asked for proof. Tax expense which will be deducible includes the transportation cost to and from, tickets, lodging, meals. Full 100% travel expenses related to the business are deductible but in case of meals and entertainment deduction is limited up to 50% of the actual cost, if you keep the records. Or it can be calculated by 50% of the standard meal allowance. Whereas, on entertainment, the IRS has numerous restrictions. If your entertainment expenses qualify for the test, it is only 50% deductible. You must keep a record of all receipts relating to tour, entertainment and meals.

Click Here to see detailed deductions on Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses on IRS’s website.

 

IRS - Internal Revenue Services Logo
Click on the Image to See More Credits and Deductions on the official IRS Website

 

Telephone & Internet Charges

These charges refer to calls made & the internet used for business purposes. The common idea is to only declare deduction of the consumption that happens related to business operations, so for example if 40% was used for the business then only 40% of total charges should be claimed for deduction.

You may or may not have a separate line for your business, in the latter case when you receive your telephone bill each month you can highlight the business calls and file it accordingly. Many people carry a cell phone, especially for business calls. They can claim the full bill as tax-deductible. It is highly advisable to NOT to include your personal usage.

 

Insurance Premium

There is no business without the owner so your personal health insurance can be used as a deductible under tax laws. Whatever the amount, you can use all of it except that it cannot exceed more than the net profits of your business. You may deduct premiums that you paid to provide coverage for your spouse, dependents and your children who were below 27 at year-end, even if they are not your dependents. It can’t be claimed if you pay a different type of insurance premium, either single or jointly, such as the one offered by your spouse’s medical plan.

Two important points must be kept in mind:

1. Employment of your spouse must be real.

2. Any kind of failure in meeting these requirements may result in a court situation.

 

Car Mileage

When your car is used for business purposes, those expenses are tax-deductible. Make proper records of such trips and do not mix it with personal trips. The deduction can be taken out using two methods:

1. Standard Mileage
2. Actual Expense Method

  • Standard Mileage: This method is the easiest because it requires record keeping and minimal calculation. Write down the dates and the miles you drove your vehicle for business purposes. At the end multiply your annual miles by standard mileage rate which is 57.5 cent per mile. The answer will be your tax-deductible amount.
  • Actual Expense Method: For this, the percentage of business driving must be calculated for a full year along with operating charges such as gas, registration fees, repairs and insurance. Now let us say you spent $4000 as operating expenses and used your car for 10% business purposes, the result would be $400 as a deductible expense.

Don’t forget to keep track of your mileage. While you can’t deduct all of your mileage, you can deduct mileage that is work-related and outside of your normal commute, so you’ll want to keep track of that throughout the year says Troy Martin, a Utah CPA for Cook Martin Poulson, P.C.

 

Bonus – All in One Deduction

All contributions to Simplified Employee Pension – SEP -IRA, Savings Incentive Match Plan For Employees Of Small Employers – SIMPLE & Independent 401(K) are tax deductibles and help you reduce your taxable income. Why do we call them cherries on the cake is because they not only help you save tax but they also help you attain tax-deferred investment gains for later on. This year (2015) the contribution limit for Independent 401(k) has been increased to $53,000.

 

Small business owners’ tax deductions are quite complicated. But the above overview gives clear information about the aspects which will be helpful in a tax deduction. You may take the help of a professional in case if you don’t wish to get into all the related hassle. While we encourage you to avail all legal tax deductions for small business owners we would also like to remind you that illegal tax evasion can lead you to heavy penalties or jail time.

 

Click Here for IRS’s Employer’s Tax Guide



 

What is RBI?

What is RBI (Reserve Bank of India)?

RBI stands for Reserve Bank of India & it is headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is the Central Bank of India, controlling monetary values. It came into being on 1st April 1935. On 1st January 1949 RBI was nationalized. The share capital was divided into 100 shares owned by private shareholders, however now shares are held by the government. RBI’s central office was in Kolkata, Now it is in Mumbai from year 1937. It manages loans and its terms and controls the liquidity of funds in market. Reserve Bank of India is a member bank of ACU and topmost member of Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI).

Official Website of RBI – www.rbi.org.in

Current Governor (2017) – Urjit Patel

Reserves (2017) – Over $400 Billion

RBI – Logo

RBI Logo

 

History

Dr. B. R Ambedkar wrote about RBI in his book- The Problem of Rupee- Its origin and its Solution, in presence of Hilton Young Commission. The Foreign Exchange Management Act came into being in June 2000. RBI enforced nationalized banks with capital markets, developed economic growth in spite of barriers in late 1990′s .

 

 

RBI - Reserve Bank of India - NEFT

 

 

Structure of RBI

Board of Directors (BOD)
It is the central committee of central bank. Board of Directors are appointed for a term of 4 years. It consists of 4 Deputy Governors, 4 Directors from Ministry of Finance and 10 other Directors.

Governors
Raghuram Rajan is the governor of RBI. The other 4 Deputy Governors include HR Khan, Dr Urjit Patel, R Gandhi and  S S Mundra.

Supporting Cast
RBI has four regional representatives; New Delhi in North, Chennai in South, Kolkata in East and Mumbai in West. Five members form the representation.

Branch and Office
It has 4 zonal offices and around 19 offices in following states and cities:
1. Ahmedabad
2. Chandigarh
3. Bhopal
4. Delhi
5. Mumbai
6. Nagpur
7. Jammu
8. Kolkata
9. Patna
10. Lucknow
11. Srinagar
12. Simla

 

Functions of RBI

1. Manager, Regulator and Controller of Financial Market:

RBI is the supervisor of financial system as it maintains public faith in this system, provides transparency in its activities and protects the interest of investors.

2. Exchange control manager:

RBI facilitates internal and external trade and equates the balance of payment account. It also helps in the growth of foreign exchange market in India.

3. Issues Currency:

Reserve Bank of India issues and exchanges currency, both notes and coins as per the circumstances. It sells and purchases securities to maintain the price stability and liquidity of assets.

4. Banker’s Bank:

It serves as a bank to commercial banks where they can deposit money to balance the monetary structure of economy. By providing advances to commercial banks, it acts as lender of last resort.

 

Rates and Ratios

As per January 15, 2015 , the rates are:

1. Bank Rate – 8.75%
2. Repo Rate – 7.50%
3. Reverse Repo Rate – 6.75%
4. Cash Reserve Ratio – 4%
5. Statutory Liquidity Ratio – 21.50%
6. Base Rate – 10.00% to 10.25%
7. Savings Deposit Rate – 4%
8. Term Deposit Rate – 8.00% to 9.00%

 



 

What is MNREGA?

MNREGA

On September 5th 2005 with assent of the president of India a new policy came into existence which worked towards providing livelihood security in rural areas of India. It started with the name “NREGA” which stood for National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and then an additional letter “M” was prefixed making it “MNREGA” Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. MNREGA is an employment scheme which provides social security by guaranteeing a minimum of 100 days paid work per year to all the families whose adult members opt for unskilled labor-intensive work.

 

MNREGA

 

History

After three years of observation, the government launched schemes like Jawahar Rozgaar Yojana, Food for Work Programme, Sampurna Grameen Rozgaar Yojna. These acts were predecessor to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, which was a legal title. This act was firstly initiated in Maharashtra in 1970’s by Former Chief Minister of Maharashtra Vasant Rao Naik. NREGA act resulted in a boon for millions of farmer families. This act was accepted by Planning Commission and later on accepted nationwide. Such acts gave lessons to government regarding ‘Rural Manpower Programme’ ‘Crash Scheme for Rural Employment’ ‘Drought Prone Area Programme’ ‘Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Laborers Scheme’. Keeping the objectives of wage employment, production of valuable assets and food security still, the government focuses on implementing new schemes by seeking drawbacks of old ones. MNREGA is one of the outcomes of same.

 

Key Features

1. To provide job security to all adult members for at least 100 days in a financial year
2. To create permanent wealth such as roads, ponds, wells.
3. Employment is provided within a range of 5 kms from residence of applicants.
4. Minimum wages will be provided.
5. Applicants will be given unemployment allowances, if work is not provided within 15 days of application.

 

Highlights

1. By 1st April 2008, this act covered all districts of India.
2. ‘Stellar Example of Rural Development’ is what World Bank termed this act, as per World Development Report 2014.
3. This act is executed by Gram Panchayats.
4. Labor-intensive tasks are preferred.
5. Women empowerment, environment protection, boosting social equality are the areas covered under NREGA act.
6. The act safeguards the effective and efficient management and implementation of its policies.
7. The act also ensures a genuine, transparent regulation of its activities.

 

MNREGA has been criticized for making agriculture less profitable as landless laborers are lazy and they don’t want to work on farms as they can get money without doing anything through minimum money guarantee at NREGA work sites.

 



 

What is NEFT?

RBI - Reserve Bank of India - NEFT

What do you mean by NEFT?

NEFT stands for National Electronic Funds Transfer. It’s an electronic payment system of India facilitated by RBI (Reserve Bank of India), it helps people with one-to-one money transfers. People using this facility can transfer money electronically from any branch of bank to any other individual or organization within the country that has a bank account which has NEFT service enabled.

Not all bank branches of the country are part of NEFT funds transfer network. The branches which are NEFT-enabled, only those can become a part of this network. The consolidated list of bank branches which are a part of NEFT, can be found by clicking here. You can select the appropriate option on this link.

 

Limits, Charges & Operating Hours of NEFT

 

Limits

The amounts carry no restrictions. But the cash based transactions are limited up to a maximum amount of INR 50,000/ Per Transaction for cash based payments.

 

Charges

There are no charges to receive money, however to send money following charges are applicable,

0-10,000 INR 2.50 + Service Tax
10,000 – 1,00,000 INR 5.00 + Service Tax
1,00,000 – 2,00,000 INR 15.00 + Service Tax
2,00,000 Above INR 25.00 + Service Tax

*In some cases it may not attract any charges example salary accounts, specially designed accounts, No frills etc.  

 

Operating hours

Weekdays (Mon-Fri)- 8 a.m to 7 p.m (twelve settlements)
Weekends (Saturday)- 8 a.m to 1 p.m

 

Who all can transact through NEFT?

Any individual, association or firm having accounts with banks can transfer money through NEFT. Even people who don’t own an account (walk-in-customers) can deposit money in NEFT enabled banks, adhering to instructions. Such customers are required to supply full information regarding their address, telephone number, supplement accounts and much more.

Only the individuals, firms or associations which hold accounts with any branch of bank can receive payments under NEFT system. So it becomes mandatory for the beneficiary to hold an account with the NEFT enabled bank.

There are no geographical restrictions on the banks. The transactions can be carried out from anywhere to everywhere within the country.

 

Working of the NEFT system


The operating of this system can be understood in following steps:

Step 1: An individual or the association desiring to transfer funds through NEFT, need to execute/complete the application form consisting details of beneficiary such as name, address, bank branch, account number and the money to be deposited. The form is available at the commencing bank branch. Even ATM offers this facility for some banks.

STEP 2: A message is prepared and sent to the NEFT Service Center (also known as pooling center) by the commencing bank.

STEP 3: That message is dispatched by pooling center to the NEFT Clearing Center, which is managed by National Clearing Cell, Reserve Bank of India, Mumbai.

STEP 4: The funds are sorted by Clearing Center as per the bank branches from commencing banks to destination banks. And after that those messages are delivered by the pooling centers of the destined banks.

STEP 5: The messages are received from the Clearing Center to the destination banks and they approve the request against the beneficiary customers.

 

For more detailed information on NEFT you can visit www.rbi.org.in 

 



 

What is NSE and BSE?

NSE and BSE

A stock exchange or a stock market acts as a service provider, it is one stop shop for traders to buy or sell financial instruments such as shares, bonds etc. A stock exchange can be approached for both issue and redemption of Publicly listed shares. To be able to trade on a stock exchange you’ll need to have a trading account. SEBI (Securities Exchange Board of India) is the governing body in India that acts as a regulator of capital markets under a resolution of the Indian Government.

Leading Stock Exchanges of India are NSE (National Stock Exchange) and BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange)

 

WHAT IS BSE?

Bombay Stock Exchange is the expansion of term BSE. It is an ancient stock exchange of Asia, incorporated in 1875 and it is headquartered in Maharashtra (Mumbai), India. Bombay Stock Exchange is the 10th largest stock exchange in market capitalization. Around 5400 companies are listed on BSE as of 2015. Not many know that BSE started under a banyan tree with the total money used back then were INR 7.

 

Key Features of BSE

CEO/MD – AshishKumar Chauhan

Market Capitalization – USD $1.7 Trillion

Currency Traded – INR

Name of Indexes – BSE Sensex, BSE Mid Cap, BSE Small Cap, BSE 500

Location – Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers, Dalal Street, Mumbai

ISO Certified – Yes, first one to get this certification

 

Timings

09:00 to 09:15 – Pre-open trading session

09:30 to 15:30 – General trading session

17:05 to 17:15 – Position transfer session

17:05 to 17:55 – Closing session

17:07 – Option Exercise session

 

BSE

 

OBJECTIVES OF BSE

From more than 130 years, BSE is providing an effective and efficient capitalization platform. It provides a transparent electronic screen based market for trading in different securities, instruments, funds and bonds, be it small or medium enterprises. It also serves as host of secondary services for investors like risk management, market facilities, education. These services, processes safeguard the investor’s interest, develop Indian Capital Market along with innovation and competition. It also provides various depository services. Also BSE acts as a regulator, which provides surveillance mechanisms through which all the speculations, irregularities and manipulations can be detected.

 


 

WHAT IS NSE?

National Stock Exchange is the expansion of term NSE. It is the top exchange in India by number of trades in equity shares and number three in the world. It is situated in Mumbai and was established in November 1992 as Taxation Company. It was accepted as stock exchange in April 1993 under the Securities Act 1956, with P.V. Narasimha Rao being the Prime Minister of India and Manmohan Singh being the Finance Minister. NSE has around 1600 listings as of 2015. 

 

Key Features of NSE

CEO/MD – Chitra Ramkrishna

Market Capitalization – USD $1.65 Trillion

Currency Traded – INR

Name of Indexes – CNX Nifty, CNX Nifty Junior, CNX 500

Location – Bandra, Mumbai

 

Timings

09:00 to 09:08 – Pre-open trading session

09:15 to 15:30 – General trading session

 

NSE - National Stock Exchange

 

OBJECTIVES OF NSE

The key objective of National Securities Exchange is to provide a transparent trading system for all kinds of securities worldwide. It also protects the interest of investors. It achieved its objectives in quite short span of time. Many new terms have come into being to give a variety of options to investors.

 



 

How to Get Your CIBIL Score?

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Getting your CIBIL Score in India

Whether you’re applying for a consumer loan, home loan, credit card, auto loan or just interested in having a look at your CIBIL report, your credit score will play a vital role in the process. CIBIL can be elaborated as Credit Information Bureau India Limited and it keeps all records of your loans, credit cards and other forms of considerable credit. How would you get your CIBIL credit score?

 

Step by Step Guide

  • You need to start with filling a form on CIBIL’s website, you can Click Here for the form. This form required you to fill personal details including demographics, ID Proof, Address Proof etc.
  • CIBIL TransUnion Score (CIR – Credit Information Report will be included), this in entirety will cost you INR 470, After filling the form as per previous step you will be required to make a payment through either CC/DC/Cash Card or Net Banking.
  • Now you will be authenticated to ensure and identify that your request is valid and the correct person is requesting it.
  • If authenticated successfully you will get immediate access to your credit score and CIR online.

or

  • If authentication fails, you will get be given a set of instructions to complete and after that you will receive your credit score and CIR by express courier.

 

Steps of getting cibil score

 

 

Can You Get Your CIBIL Score for Free?

No! you as an individual can never get your credit score for free, banks might get it and they will usually not share the scores with you. If you are being denied of credit cards, loans etc. recently it is a good sign that your CIBIL score has been hit hard & needs fixing. One distant possibility is a free credit score being offered with some financial or a similar product as a promotional offer. INR 470 is the cost you’ll need to incur as of 2015.

 

CIBIL LOGO Circle

 

What are Bad & Good Credit Scores?

Scores would range somewhere between 300 and 900, you can say that is how CIBIL TransUnion judges you on your repayments. You can refer to the below list to understand more about what your credit score spells for you.

  • 300 to 650 – Poor
  • 650 to 700 – Average
  • 700 – 800 – Good
  •  800-900 – Excellent

 



 

What is PPF?

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Heard about Public Provident Fund (PPF), but don’t know much about it? For details, have a look at the explanation.

WHAT IS PPF?

Much known as Public Provident fund, PPF a savings instrument introduced by the ministry of finance in India which also helps in tax savings. In 2015 this scheme is more than 45 years old and is still among the top financial instruments used for tax planning. PPF is a success not only because it provides decent returns on investment but the money invested also gives tax benefits. The returns are usually higher than what the Fixed Deposits offer. It is a Long Term Debt Instrument of Indian Government. Post Offices as well as some Banks gain the authority to access PPF accounts. 

 

Eligibility

  • A person needs to be ROI (Resident of India)
  • Non Resident Indians (NRI’s) cannot advance money in Public Provident Fund.
  • Minors are eligible to open an account by their legal guardian.
  • PPF account can not be opened under the name of  HUF (Hindu Undivided Family)

 

Documents Required

  • Pan Card copy
  • Form A (Opening Form)
  • Passport size photo
  • Any residential proof

 

Investment Amounts

The minimum and maximum limit every year for investing in public provident fund is INR 500 & 1.5 lakhs respectively, deposits may be made in monthly installments (max 12/year) or in one go. Any deposits above the specified amounts will not fetch any interest income. Failure to deposit 500 INR would make you liable for a penalty.

 

Interest Rates and Other Benefits

RBI declares the Interest Rate every year in March. For 2014-2015 this is 8.70%, which was exactly the same as previous year.

It is advisable to invest money in this account before 5th of each month to gain maximum returns, as the interest is calculated on the least balance from 5th to the last of month. Therefore, it is desirable to deposit additional sum before time to earn additional benefits.

Also the entire sum of 1.5 lakhs can be advanced before 5th April to earn interest on the entire amount for the whole year.

 

Duration, Loans & Transfers

From the day a PPF account starts, it’s accessible till 15 years. After 15 years, the tenure ends. On the expiry date, the money can be withdrawn.
Also, the account holder can opt for extension of account up to a maximum of 5 years with adherence to certain terms and conditions.

Loans are available to individuals from third financial year itself. All such loans are to be reimbursed within months. disbursed amount can not be more than 25% of balance at the end of 2nd immediately preceding year. If you have paid the first loan successfully and you are between 3rd and the 6th year you may be available for a 2nd loan.

The accounts of individuals can be easily transferred to Post Offices or other Bank Branches free of charge.

 

Benefits Regarding Tax

Such benefits come under SEC 80(c) of IT ACT. The amount deposited in PPF account, is divided into two parts.

  1. PRINCIPAL AMOUNT which is the total sum which you invested
  2. INTEREST AMOUNT which is the benefit you will get on the above investment

Tax benefit includes benefits on both the amounts, up to a maximum of INR 1,50,000

 

ON PRINCIPAL AMOUNT

This amount can be reduced from the actual Income Tax amount of that year. The sum so arrived is liable for tax payment. It can also be reduced from Wealth Tax.

ON INTEREST AMOUNT

The return, in form of interest is tax-free. No tax formality is incurred on the interest amount.

 

Policies Governing PPF

  • Only one account is accessible by an individual. Except in case of minor, if second account of a person is disclosed, the principal amount will be handed over back to him but the interest thereupon will be cancelled.
  • A PPF account is not a joint account. A nominee can be selected, who will be benefited after the death of account holder.
  • In case, no nominee has been appointed, the benefits will be given to the legal heir’s of the deceased account holder.

 

PPF Disclaimer

  • By default, the PPF account will be deactivated, if no investment is made in the whole year.
  • A penalty of 50 INR is to be borne by the account holder for again activating the account along with 500 INR for the inactive year.
  • The deceased account cannot be continued by the nominees.
  • The identity of legal heirs or nominees is just in case the balance in deceased account exceeds 1.5 lakhs.

 

PPF Vs Some other Schemes

Tax Savings Fixed Deposit

  • PPF and Tax Savings Fixed Deposit both are deductible incomes.
  • But the tenure of Tax Savings Fixed Deposit is 5 years, which is less when compared to PPF.
  • Even the benefit earned on Tax Savings Fixed Deposit is taxable which is the reverse of PPF.

National Savings certificate

  • Both schemes include deposits made in Post Office or Bank Branches.
  • NSC is a scheme which involves deposit only once whereas PPF requires deposit every year.
  • The tenure of NSC is 5-10 years whereas that of PPF is 15 years.

 



 

What are Secured and Unsecured Loans, Which is Better?

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Secured and Unsecured Loans

You need funds to start a new venture? or Require money for education of your children? or Maybe you’re looking out for a new credit card or loan to buy a new car/house? Whatever the requirement, you will need to choose between Secured or Unsecured debt. Each type has its own positives and negatives. So it’s better to be aware about them by going through our cover story.

 

Secured and Unsecured Loans CIrcle

 

WHAT ARE SECURED LOANS?

Secured loans are those loans which are backed by some or the other kind of property or assets. The word secured depicts that these type of loan are protected by some collateral. In case if a borrower fails to pay the loan the creditor can legally auction or sell the collateral to recover the original amount disbursed. Assets such as home, automobile, stocks, gold etc. can be used as collateral. The title of the pledged article will be held by the loan provider (creditor) until it is repaid in full along with the interest. A secured loan is generally less costly for the debtors and more peace-of-mind oriented for the creditors.

 

Examples of Secured Loans

  • Home Loans
  • Construction Loans
  • Gold Loans
  • Car Loans
  • Boat Loans

 

PROS AND CONS OF SECURED LOANS

PROS

  • Secured loans are available for larger amounts as compared to personal loans.
  • Less paper work and easy to qualify if one has suitable collateral against the loan.
  • The time period of loan repayment is also higher as compared to other type of loans.
  • Such loans offer lower interest rates as they are secured against your property.

CONS

  • Failure to repay the loan would result in losing your property.
  • Few secured loans have varying interest rates that could make your repayment amount higher.
  • Secured loans bear risk factor because they need expensive collateral security.
  • You may incur high penalty fees on the repayment of loan.

 


 

WHAT ARE UNSECURED LOANS?

Unsecured loans are totally opposite to secured loans, they are disbursed without a collateral in place. Such loans are accessible to anyone & you need not have a suitable asset to be pledged as a collateral. Taking unsecured loan implies that the borrower can repay through his financial resources itself. Unsecured loans are usually more costlier than secured loans due to no security in place and more prone to end up as a total loss to the creditor. If you fail to pay an unsecured loan, the lender can drag you to court and damage your credit worthiness as well.

 

A borrower is judged by 5 C’s before a secured loan is provided:

  1. Character
  2. Capacity
  3. Collateral
  4. Capital
  5. Conditions

Examples of Unsecured Loans

  • Credit Cards
  • Education Loans
  • Personal Loans
  • Renovation Loans

 

PROS AND CONS OF UNSECURED LOANS

PROS

  • Such loans are quite cheap as compared to Secured ones.
  • They give number of options to choose the repayment mode.
  • You will not lose any of your assets.
  • All you need is a document and signature and you can avail this loan

CONS

  • As no property is mortgaged, the lenders charge higher interest rates even for a short-term.
  • You can get only a limited sum of money from lenders as they give more money on secured loans because there the financial risk is secured.
  • Since the loan amounts are not large, the repayment periods are also short as compared to repayment period of secured loans.
  • One may get trapped into the debt cycle due to continuous non-payment of loan amounts

 

WHICH ONE IS BETTER?

The truth, there is NO right answer to this question. What, When, Which & How to opt for which type of loan, totally depends on your need of taking the loan. Both are a good option if they fit in to your requirements perfectly. Generally secured loans are good from creditor’s point of view as there is a collateral to cover up the losses, whereas an unsecured loan is good from a applicant’s point of view as he/she would have no tangible asset to lose in case of a default.

The key is to think in the right direction before applying for the loan. Auto, education, personal, consumer etc. all these type of loans are designed specifically for the purpose stated in their respective name(s). Be willing to pay more & quicker in case if you don’t wish to collateralize your loan. So the preference solely depends on your requirement.

 Once you are clear about the type of loan you require, you must approach different lenders to see what interest rates they offer. Don’t forget to compare the rate of interests being offered by different banks and NBFCs before you finalize your lender. Try to browse through some websites to check their respective USPs & repayment plans. Cross check and apply for a loan with the lender which suits best, according to your requirements.

 



 

How to Become a Chartered Accountant in India

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Steps to become a Chartered Accountant in India?

There are two ways to pursue a branded CA career;

  • Foundation Course Route
  • Direct Entry Route

The direct entry route takes you directly to the intermediate stage of the course, meaning skipping the CA Foundation exam.

The candidates who are eligible to register themselves with the Direct Entry Route are given below –

  1. Commerce Graduates / Post Graduates scored minimum 55% marks or other graduates or Postgraduates who scored minimum 60% marks.
  2. Candidates who have passed the Intermediate level of Institute of Companies Secretaries of India or Institute of Cost Accountants of India.

Direct Entry Course details can be seen on the following link.

CA Foundation course route has a total of Four Major steps, this flow chart will help understand it better.

Flowchart showing steps to become a chartered accountant in India

Direct entry course, on the other hand, reduces the first step and gives direct entry to the aspirants to the next level. Eligibility can be checked along with other criteria(s) for both the entry types at the following link.

 

Stage 1 – CA Foundation (Previously CPT)

CA – Foundation is the first stage of CA course. It comprises of four subjects. A candidate is required to secure at least 40% marks in each subject and a total of 50% in aggregate to clear this stage. CA Foundation syllabus, course papers, and all other related information can be accessed on this link.

 

This paper is divided into 4 parts-

  • Paper 1: Principles and Practices of Accounting
  • Paper 2: Mercantile Law and General English
  • Paper 3: Business Mathematics, Logical Reasoning, and Statistics
  • Paper 4: Business Economics & Business and Commercial Knowledge

 

Stage 2 – IPCC or IPCE

After the results for CA Foundation, the candidates get a period of 9 months to prepare for the next stage, which is the intermediate stage.

The next stage in the CA course is IPCC/IPCE (Integrated Professional Competence Course/Examination). A candidate reaches this stage after clearing CA – Foundation. IPCC is divided into two groups;

  • Group – 1
  • Group – 2

For clearing this stage a student needs to get a minimum of 40 marks in each stage and a total of 50% in aggregate in each group. Students need to appear in Intermediate Examination on completion of 8 months of study course as on the first day of the month in which the examination is to be held.

 

Stage 3 – Apprenticeship training

The next stage for candidates who have cleared both the groups of IPCC/IPCE and even any one of the groups is apprenticeship training of 3 years. Though, before that, one must go through the ITT and Orientation Program.

After the one can go ahead with the practice, it can be done under any practicing CA or a chartered accountancy firm.

A candidate is not eligible to appear in CA – Final exams if he/she has not completed the apprenticeship training of 3 years.

One always prefers to go with firms like Big 4 or various other big firms. The bottom line stays the same, which says the practice is the Key. It is very important to get the most possible exposure during this period, which helps one place better in a dream company later on. We have to trust that there is no substitute for learning.

 

Stage 4 – CA Final

The last stage of the CA course is CA – final examination. A candidate who has cleared both groups of IPCC/IPCE and who has completed the apprenticeship training is eligible to apply for CA – Final exams. This is the final stage of CA course.

CA – Final is divided into two groups and each group has four papers.

CA Final Group I

Paper 1: Financial Reporting (100 Marks)
Paper 2: Strategic Financial Management (100 Marks)
Paper 3: Advanced Auditing and Professional Ethics (100 Marks)
Paper 4: Corporate Laws and other Economic Laws (100 Marks)

CA Final Group II

Paper 5: Strategic Cost Management and Performance Evaluation (100 Marks)
Paper 6: Elective Paper (100 Marks)

For clearing CA – Final a student needs to get at least 40% marks in each paper and a minimum total of 50% in aggregate in each group to clear this stage. After successfully completing the CA Final exam, one can enroll as a member of the ICAI and be designated as “Chartered Accountant”. Which is just like the final step to dream come true.

 



 

How to do MCOM from IGNOU?

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MCOM from Indira Gandhi National Open University

So you are done with your graduation and now you may be looking forward to a post-graduate masters degree which focuses on accounting, management, commerce etc.

If you’re looking to study regular college then the top regular commerce colleges are the ones you are looking for such as SRCC, Loyola, Xaviers etc. MCOM from IGNOU is a suitable choice for someone who is looking for a distance program. SOMS or School of Management Studies is the department which has the responsibility of the design and delivery of all IGNOU’s management courses.

 

IGNOU LOGO

 

Details of MCOM from IGNOU

 Eligibility  You need to be a graduate from a recognized university
 Minimum Duration  2 Years
 Maximum Duration  5 Years
 Course Fees  Rs 11,000
 Age  There is no age bar
 Language  Hindi/English
 Session Time  July – December & January – June
 Others  Expect 6 Subjects each year with 6 Credits each

 

Other Course Details

Some features of this program are:

  • Material provided for studies is enriched with multimedia to assist students in their learning and growth.
  • Operational activities of business are kept in the limelight which helps in a more practical understanding of the real life scenarios.
  • Teleconferencing is encouraged and has been included as a regular practice.
  • Students

 

From IGNOU you can also choose to do MCOM which focuses on specific area of study such as:

  • MCOM in Finance & Taxation, Click Here for more details on MCOM (F&T)
  • MCOM in Business Policy & Corporate Governance, Click Here for more details on MCOM (BP&CG)
  • MCOM in Management Accounting & Financial Strategies, Click Here for more details on MCOM (MA&FS)

 



 

How to do BCOM from IGNOU?

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BCOM from Indira Gandhi National Open University

After 10+2 you can now head towards graduation which in India is offered by both private and the public sector. Graduation is necessary to apply for a lot of jobs both with private and the public companies. BCOM from IGNOU is suitable for someone who is looking to attain a graduation degree through distance education.

BCOM has been included under SOMS or School of Management Studies, it handles all the management related courses’ design and delivery from IGNOU.

There are many universities which offer bachelors in commerce such as IGNOU, SOL (School of open learning, Delhi University), SMU (Sikkim Manipal University) and many other regional universities from Andhra, Bangalore, Madras, Patna etc.

 

IGNOU LOGO

 

Details of BCOM from IGNOU

 Eligibility  You need to be at least 10+2 qualified or must have completed BPP program from IGNOU
 Minimum Duration  3 Years
 Maximum Duration  6 Years
 Course Fees  Rs 6,000
 Age  There is no age bar
 Language  Hindi/English
 Others  Expect 6 Subjects in 1st year, 13 in 2nd year,  16 in 3rd year

 

Other Course Details

Some features of this program are:

  • With BCOM from IGNOU students can also get basic knowledge about Computers, Tech, Humanities, Social Sciences etc.
  • All the teaching is done through multi media medium which makes the studies interactive for the students.
  • If you are a student from a different university and want admission in BCOM from IGNOU on the basis of prior education, you can apply.

 

From IGNOU you can also choose to do BCOM which focuses on specific area of study such as:

  • BCOM in Accountancy & Finance, Click Here for more details.
  • BCOM in Corporate Affairs and Administration, Click Here for more details.
  • BCOM in Financial and Cost Accounting, Click Here for more details.

 



 

Top Accounting Softwares in India

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FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING SOFTWARES USED IN INDIA

An Accounting software is used by almost all micro, small & medium firms to make it easier and user-friendly for the owners to manage the finances of a company. It helps provide more accurate results with less efforts. Top accounting softwares in india include Tally, Marg, Busy & Quickbooks.

Not all companies need an ERP package. It depends on the size of the company, amount of money the company is planning to spend on it, user-interface & complexity of the software.

 

Tally

Tally Logo Accounting SoftwareTally is a company founded by Shyam Sundar Goenka and is Headquartered in Bangalore, India. (2014) It currently serves over 100 nations worldwide & has a revenue of US$ 90mn. Top 4 countries with a wide use of Tally are India, Bangladesh, Middle East & United Kingdom. It has over 500,000 subscribers in India alone.

The latest update, TallyERP9 is customized to many Indian accounting rules and regulations. It is considered an easy to implement accounting software and people who are well versed with operating Tally are available in large number.

It also has few other products on offer such as Tally: Developer 9, Shopper 9 & Tally.Server 9999

To check pricing and consider buying Tally Click Here

 


 

QuickBooks

Quickbooks LogoQuickbooks is the leader of accounting softwares with over 6,00,000 subscribers (2014), it is promoted & developed by an American software company “Intuit”. The company is headquartered in Mountain View, California & is publicly traded on NASDAQ.

Intuit mainly focuses on small businesses and accountants by serving them with financial and tax planning softwares. Quickbooks is widely used in many countries and each country has a different product that would suit the country’s business rules and customs.

It is also offered on the cloud platform with a different name “QBO” and can be installed in the mobile phones too. It is used for invoicing, billing to the customers and day-to-day transactions.

To check pricing and consider buying QuickBooks Click Here

 


 

Marg

MARG Logo

Marg or Marg Compusoft is a provider of unified business application software for SMEs. Its journey began around 1992 in the field of pharmaceutical informatics and information technologies in general. (2014) It has over 160 sales & support centers, 700 ERP clients & 45000 Satsfied users.

Marg offers financial accounting software which suits companies that do not need a complex ERP package. For almost two decades, many small businesses in India are using this software. This software suits most of the FMCG, pharmaceutical and other companies.

To check pricing and consider buying Marg Click Here

 


 

Busy

BUSY Logo

 

Busy or Busy Infotech Pvt. Ltd. which is a sister concern of Digitronics Infosolutions Pvt. Ltd. started back in the year 1997. Currently the chairman is Mr. Harish Chander & the managing director is Dinesh Kumar Gupta.

Busy is an accounting software that is used in many industries mainly within Micro and SME segment. Currently it has more than 6,00,000 users across the globe. Busy can support functions ranging from financial accounting, invoicing, Taxes, MIS reports etc. 

You can download a 30 days trial copy or purchase a full version Click Here

Companies which are looking for small software unlike an ERP package can opt for many small and effective software packages, instead of spending money unnecessarily on large packages. One needs to choose the software based on the company’s requirement.

Most softwares can be upgraded and can grow and become flexible as the company grows. Look into the features of each software and pick the one that covers most of your requirements.

 



 

How to Apply for a Passport Online in India?

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Step by Step Guide – Online Passport Application

With the information age hitting us, gone are the days when getting a passport was regarded as a daunting task. Now, you can apply for a passport online and avoid the queue. On a busy day to steer clear of this hassle, you might not bother shedding few notes to the passport agent. However, the changes in the procedure across the nation has eased the process to a greater extent. Now you can apply for a passport online through this website http://passportindia.gov.in.

 

Image with Indian passport and text apply online

 

Following are the steps you need to follow to apply for a passport online:

 

  • Fill in all mandatory asterisk (*) marked fields as per the given instructions. Please carefully select the passport office as per your present address only. Once you are done with the entry, click on “Register” and you are done with the registration process.

 

  • Check your inbox and look for an email from “[email protected]“, open the email and follow the link in email to activate your user account.

 

 

  • Click on ‘Apply for Fresh Passport/Re-issue of Passport’ link on your home screen.

 

  • Choice 1 – You can download the soft copy of the form , fill it offline & upload.

or

  • Choice – 2 – You can  fill in all the required details in the online application form under the head Alternative 2 by clicking on the link provided on the page (Please note that an internet connection would be required when you opt for online application).

 **Make sure you check your information twice or thrice if needed before submitting a form offline or online.

 

  • Next step is to make payment for the application. Click on the ‘View Saved/Submitted Applications’ link on the left side of the screen under Services screen to schedule an appointment. Then Click on ‘Pay and Schedule Appointment’ link for making payment for scheduling appointment.

 

  • Please note that payments for appointments at all Passport Seva Kendras (PSK) has been mandatorily made Online. The same can be done by any one of the following modes:
  1. Credit/Debit Card (MasterCard and Visa)
  2. Internet Banking (State Bank of India and Associate Banks Only)
  3. SBI Bank Challan

 

  • Once you are done with the payment step, Click on ‘Print Application Receipt’ link to print the application receipt. This application receipt shall be demanded by the PSK. For easy reference place this receipt bearing the Application Reference Number/Appointment Number in front of your passport application file.

 

  • Reach the PSK with all the originals documents at least 30 minutes before the appointment time to avoid any unnecessary delay. If you are not sure of documents that would be required at PSK, click on the below link and follow the given instructions.

https://portal1.passportindia.gov.in/AppOnlineProject/docAdvisorSecure/attachmentAdvisorInp

 

Did we miss a step? Please comment below and we will fix/improve the article. Thanks!



 

Big Four Audit Firms

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THE BIG FOUR

Big Four is the term given to represent the top four audit companies of the world. Ernst and Young, Deloitte, PricewaterhouseCoopers and KPMG together make the Big Four. These companies conduct the audit of many public and private companies throughout the world.

They audit more than 80% of all the public companies in the United States and specialize in other areas such as assurance, actuarial, risk management, corporate legal services, tax, financial planning and consulting.

 

Initially, there were the Big Eight:

  1. Coopers & Lybrand
  2. Ernst & Whinney
  3. Price Waterhouse
  4. Arthur Andersen
  5. Arthur Young & Co.
  6. Touche Ross
  7. Peat Marwick Mitchell
  8. Arthur Young & Co.

 

1989 June – Ernst & Whinney merged with Arthur Young to form Ernst & Young

1989 Aug – Deloitte, Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross to form Deloitte & Touche

1998 July – Price Waterhouse merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers

 

So the world was left with only the Big Five which included Arthur Anderson. After the infamous scandal of Enron, Arthur Anderson went out of business and Big Five became the now famous Big Four.

 

Deloitte

Head Quarters – 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, New York, USA

Employees – Over 200,000 (2014)

Revenue – Over US$ 34 Billion (2014)

Countries Served – Over 150 (2014)

 

200x200 Deloitte LogoFound back in 1845 at London, United Kingdom, Deloitte started as the separate companies of William Deloitte, Charles Haskins, Elijah Sells, and George Touche. The three companies eventually merged to become Deloitte & Touche.

Although acquisitions and mergers did help them to an extent but they have mainly remained on the top with the help of strong dedication and commitment towards their clients. In 2011, Deloitte had 1.8% growth and PWC had 1.5% growth, making Deloitte the top firm among the audit companies. In 2011, PWC out-ranked Deloitte and in 2013, Deloitte again took the first place.

Their estimated annual growth for 2012 was 8%, which is the highest out of the big four accounting firms. They have upheld this growth rate over the past four years.

 


 

PricewaterhouseCoopers

Head Quarters – London, United Kingdom

Employees – Over 195,000 (2014)

Revenue – US$ 34.0 Billion (2014)

Countries Served – Over 150 (2014)

 

200x200 PWC LogoFounded back in 1849 by Samuel Lowell Price It is the second largest audit firm operating in approximately 157 countries. It re branded itself to PWC in 1998 when Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse merged together. Their major revenue source as of 2014 is Assurance, Advisory & Tax practice. Its headquarters are in London, UK.

The firm has sustained its growth over the years, acquiring and merging with other company’s such as Booz & Co., leading them to become one of the biggest firms in the world & 5th largest in the US.

PWC has reached this level with acquiring skill from over 750 offices across the world it is growing at the pace of 4% every year.

 


 

Ernst and Young (EY)

Head Quarters – London, United Kingdom

Employees – 190,000 (2014)

Revenue – Over US$ 27 Billion (2014)

Countries Served – Over 150 (2014)

 

200x200 EY LogoFound back in 1849 by Harding & Pullein in England. It reformed to Ernst & Young in 1989 when Ernst & Whinney and Arthur Young & Co. merged together. With more than 700 offices throughout the world EY is rated third among the top 20 accounting firms in the United States.

Top source of income for EY include Assurance, Tax & Advisory.

In 2013 EY reported revenue of $25.8 billion and 5.8% annual growth rate which is the highest growth rate it has seen over the past 5 years. This is up 1.4% YOY 2012.

 


 

KPMG

Head Quarters – Amstelveen, Netherlands

Employees – Over 160,000 (2014)

Revenue – Over US$ 24 Billion (2014)

Countries Served – Over 150 (2014)

 

KPMG LogoHistory of KPMG can be traced back to 1870. In 1979 KMG was formed which was further joined by Peat Marwick and the name was eventually changed to KPMG in the late early 90s. Not a lot of people would know that in 1997 EY & KPMG tried to merge and the announcement was also made however it couldn’t happen due to some reasons.

Major source of income for KPMG is Audit, Advisory & Tax.

KPMG is doing fairly well with its growth and has also earned a lot of accolades over the years such as world’s most attractive employer, (2nd) World’s best outsourcing advisers etc.

 

Good to know – 5th largest accounting firm is said to be BDO International with over US$ 7Billion revenues (2014) & number 6 is Grant Thornton with over US$ 4 Billion revenues (2014).